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Words by Hannah Rabbitt
They’re young, fiscally fruitful and have big plans for the future. Children, however, just don’t make the cut.
Generation Y is making a name for itself as the faction that don’t want to spend their hard earned cash on settling down and having kids. Careers, travelling and sporting lush clothes are the fresh dream and the new gen certainly aren’t afraid to go for it.
Bree Lars*, a 22 year old student, says it’s the more freedom the better for her age group.
“I just think people of my generation want to be able to do things with our early years of life, and some of us just feel that kids will be a drag down; they’ll be a bit in the way of independent goals that we want to reach,” she said.
“Travelling is a big one. That is just so hard to do with a child; new born, toddler, and financially it’s just another whole person to be looking after. And if you’re looking to do something big in your career, it’s impossible to do with a new born baby as well.
“You have to be a family oriented person if you want to have a child at this age. You have to be willing to base your life around the family because there’s not much else you could possibly do. It limits you.”
Money, however, doesn’t seem to be the major drawcard. Although there seems to be a stigma of laziness and a negative desire to work attached to the new gen, it appears it isn’t the working for the money part that they aren’t all down with. The latest social trends census done by the Australian Bureau of Statistics finds 74 per cent of young adults are employed; an increase on previous years. Many more of them have educational qualifications and work part-time.
The same census showed that despite the increased access to disposable income, when compared to young adults 35 years ago, today’s cohort of Gen Y’ers were less likely to get married and also less likely to make the big (and exxy) move out of mum and dad’s place, let alone consider popping out babies.
It’s a trend that is prompting concern in many places around the world. In Japan, the population is suffering due to the lack of desire for children and sex paired with an obsession of expensive clothes in young men. Italy’s birth rates have dropped so low that the Government now offers financial benefits to young couples that have children, and are considering increasing the retirement age.
In Hong Kong many women literally do not eat so that every last cent they’ve earned can be used on the latest Chanel bag and Prada heels. Unlike many Chinese cities, Hong Kong does not enforce the one child policy, however its population growth has decreased significantly. It now possesses one of the lowest birth rates in the world.
Irish expat Orla Thomas has lived in Hong Kong for 16 years and has experienced first hand how the lust for designer goods has become paramount to any want for a family.
“I think the younger generation here are very materialistic. They’ll always have the latest phone or gadget and are very into how they look,” she says.
“When I worked at [husband] Gareth’s office 10 years ago, the vast majority of the secretaries I worked with spent all their wages on the latest fashion; big label brands like LV, Gucci and Jimmy Choo…. they definitely always had the latest handbag and shoes and it would change every season.
“I think people are having just one kid so they can keep up these expensive lifestyles.”
Mrs Thomas isn’t wrong; shopping is a big player in terms of priorities. In 2012, Gen Y’s buying power was $US200 billion, and it is only set to increase. By 2017, they will have more buying power than any other generation.
In the US, Professor Stewart Friedman interviewed the 496 undergraduate students of The Wharton School in 1992 and the 307 in 2012 for his book Baby Bust. He discovered that only 42 per cent of the latter cohort, todays Gen Y, wanted to have children. The consequence? Birth rates in that country have fallen for the fifth year in a row with the birth per 1000 women dropping to 63.
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Queensland, Elin Charles-Edwards, says the Gen Y baby drop is linked to a trend called Demographic Transition Theory.
“Once mortality starts to decline, particularly in young ages (amongst infants) people no longer feel the need to have lots of children because they know that there will be children surviving into adulthood,” she says.
“Another reason for the decline is that the nature of the economy has changed quite markedly. In a lot of traditional, agricultural societies, children are viewed as a source of labour so they like to have lots of children. But as societies have modernised, children start costing people.”
Dr Charles-Edwards says it can also be attributed an overall shift in cultural values.
“Women are becoming much more educated, much more interested in pursuing careers, and much more focused on individual values, and individual self-actualisation. And given that context, the window in which women have children is reduced because we are at university for a very long time; we’re trying to get our careers established up to our mid- thirties. So that sort of ‘window’ is shrinking and that reduces the number of kids we have. But also, since we have so many other opportunities, having a child is perhaps sort of not as desirable and important as it once was.”
Miss Lars certainly feels so.
“What I do know is that if I never do get to have kids, I won’t be upset about it. I’d feel like I got to live my life, and not for someone else. Perhaps that sounds selfish, or is selfish, but that’s just the way our generation thinks.”
Maybe it’s selfish; but maybe it’s simply a reflection of the new society’s values and economy. You can be the judge.
*names have been changed to protect the privacy of individuals
The Crimes of Our Online Alter Egos
Words by Hannah Rabbitt
More than a billion people have a Facebook account, 645 million tweet their thoughts in 140 characters or less and 100 million play (amateur) photographer on Instagram.
So, is the social media you the real you?
Online, we present ourselves the way we would like to be received by our work comrades, old high school frenemies and that ex’s new partner. But is this representation a true reflection of our identity?
Most of us would be guilty of hiding a Peter Parker-like secret; our social media ‘alter ego’. Where Parker has a spider man suit, we have filters (Mayfair works wonders for the skin tone) and they’re just as good at hiding the things we don’t want others to see.
A survey conducted by Intel revealed that 46 per cent of the females questioned only posted flattering profile pictures and the top reason for the social media lies for 56 per cent of the girls (and 59 per cent of the guys) was to impress people.
Lecturer at the University of Queensland Dr Nicholas Carah studies social media habits and says that we methodically choose what we put online.
“What we are doing on social media is telling a story about ourselves in a kind of public, or semi public forum. So we are telling it to somebody. So we have some perception of an audience…people learn to judge how they want to be seen by others,” he says.
However Dr Carah says that these constructed alter egos aren’t exclusive to our online presence, and that they are an extension of the masks that we already make use of in everyday life.
“There was this sociologist in the 50s, Irving Koffman, who wrote ‘The Presentation of the Self in Everyday Life’ and had this theory of masks. He’s saying that when we hang out with our family versus our friends versus a professional setting, we kind of perform our identity in a particular way depending on who we judge to be the audience,” Dr Carah says.
“So we’ll say things to our parents that we would never say to our friends and vice versa. And social media is kind of the same. It’s just another place where we perform our identity and perform it based on judgements we make.”
However, in an increasingly digital society, pressure is mounting for that on-screen self to be perfect.
The issue with these virtual alter egos is that unlike Mr Parker’s webbed counterpart, the side effects of their existence are rarely positive. Social media depression is now an increasingly common phenomenon. The assumption that other people’s lives are as great as what they portray online makes many feel inadequate and can foster anxiety, and the culture of likes can wreak havoc on self esteem.
At the 2012 Society for Personality and Social Psychologists conference, PhD candidate Mudra Mukesh presented research and data showing that participants who frequently looked at friends status’ and updates displayed depressed tendencies. She found that people who had recently viewed their colleagues uploads scored their own life and achievements much lower than those who hadn’t hopped on Facebook for a while.
19-year-old Clare James* says the affects of the online stress and depressed feelings are all too real.
One look at her Instagram account filled with lo-fi filtered shots of salads, travels and snaps with her nearest and dearest, and Miss James appears to be happily sharing a seemingly stress-free life with her 2280 followers. But in reality, the constant pressure to upload the perfect photo and the anxiety of how it’s received by her followers is a big problem for the young woman.
“You have to live up to the expectations of the likes, and then if people are going to unfollow you if the photo is bad…it’s a worry,” she says.
“It makes me so depressed. Especially because people my age are so obsessed over Instagram. After uploading a photo, if it doesn’t get a good time to like ratio, I get down and start freaking out and wondering if I should delete it. It actually affects my mood.
“If I get ten likes to a minute, I don’t feel as worried. I think that it is pretty sad that it puts people in a downer. But it’s not just me; it’s everyone.”
Miss James also fears that if a picture doesn’t fit the kind of cyber persona she has created, it won’t be nearly as popular.
“I worry that the likes are going to be affected and I’m really self conscious about that,” she says.
Psychology lecturer and researcher Dr Stephanie Tobin says that in today’s society-one where we are highly attuned to being rejected- Miss James is by no means alone in the post-upload stress that she experiences.
“In one of our studies we had people come in and post an update on a researcher account. We set it up so half of the people got not feedback and the other people got comments and likes on theirs. We found that it affected belonging, self-esteem, control and meaningful existence,” she says.
“Across the board people tend to react negatively when they didn’t get the feedback. So, what I conclude from that is that it’s just a general thing that we’re all sensitive to… we’re very sensitive to how we’re fitting in with people face to face and online. In the moment when it happens and we realise that we’ve put something out there, even though they’re just strangers, having no one respond makes you feel bad. You think ‘uh, no one cares’. So it would probably be even worse if it were your own friend group doing that.”
Dr Tobin says the amount of feedback we get undeniably shapes people’s behaviour.
“We’ve done some stuff on Instagram too and it does look like the subjective sense of satisfaction with the responses predicts people’s experiences; so the more satisfied you are with the responses you’re getting, the better off you are,” she says.
The research carried out by Dr Tobin finds that it’s not just the stress of our own uploading that gets us down; the passive observing of other people’s glamorised virtual identities has the most negative effect.
“We’ve found that [not participating online or putting stuff out there but not getting any feedback] can lower a person’s sense of belonging and meaningful existence; it makes them feel disconnected and just generally invisible. In that sense our experiences online can certainly affect our wellbeing,” she says.
“In general, I think what you see when you look at all the research out there on Facebook is that the negative consequences tend to come about more when we are doing the passive behaviours; when we’re just kind of reading what other people have posted but not actually engaging with it by commenting on it or posting for ourselves.”
Miss James knows that she needs to try to tone down the overwhelming negative feelings she gets from her uploads.
“I feel that at the end of the day, if you present yourself with perfect skin and hair and photo shop your body…that’s not what you look like. People see you in real life. It’s sad that people portray themselves as something they aren’t,” she says.
It’s inevitable that we want to post the good stuff online and we’re never going to deliberately upload an unflattering selfie, but maybe it’s time we start limiting the emphasis put on how flawlessly amazing our virtual self is.
Online alter egos? I’ll take a spider-web covered superhero over them any day.
*names have been changed to protect the privacy of individuals